ALMA MATER STUDIORUM – UNIVERSITA DI BOLOGNA
Almost 1000 years old, the University of Bologna (UNIBO) is known as the oldest University of the western world. Nowadays, UNIBO is one of the most important institutions of higher education across Europe and the second largest university in Italy with 11 Schools, 33 Departments and about 87.000 students.
Department. The activity of UNIBO in this project will be performed within the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering (DEI). DEI consists of around 120 scientists, whose research and education activities cover the several fields of Industrial and Information Engineering.
Research group. The research group contributing to this proposal is located at LIT (Laboratory of Innovation Technologies). The group activity is mainly focused on electrical characterisation and diagnosis of insulating materials for electrical apparatus and multi-factor ageing modelling, as well as development of innovative electrical insulating materials. In the last 5 years one FP7 EURATOM project, called ADVANCE, was carried out by LIT-UNIBO on the investigation of electrical quantities correlated with ageing to diagnose low voltage cables installed in Nuclear Power Plant. An additional IAEA CRP project was carried out at the end of the ADVANCE project to deeper investigate electrical quantity correlation with other physical and chemical properties on thermally aged and irradiated cable insulation.
Role in the project
The role of the base insulation and of the additives on the dielectric response of irradiated and thermally aged cable insulation have to be clarified in order to understand the behaviour of electrical properties with ageing on the whole cable insulation.
For this purpose, UNIBO will carry out electrical tests on the samples with different contents of additives and stabilisers, aged during the whole project. In particular:
- BDS used to evaluate complex permittivity in the frequency range between 0.1 mHz to 3 GHz.
- Dielectric response and electrical conductivity at very low frequency to find out if ageing could affect the interfacial polarisation, as expected in case of cross-linking.
- Space charge measurements to search for physical morphological changes in the insulation, revealed by trap-depth variation, due to irradiation and temperature ageing.
In addition to experimental activity, modelling of the diagnostic properties with ageing will also be performed in order to predict with better accuracy the condition of the specific insulation, once correlation with chemical and physical properties and failure criteria have been carried out. Criteria and protocols for deployment of on-site dielectric measurements will also be provided.
Simone Vincenzo Suraci
ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE
Électricité de France (EDF) is the largest producer and provider of electricity in the world. Around 2,000 people are presently employed at EDF R&D.
The mission of the EDF R&D MMC (Materials and Mechanics of Components) department is to lead the investigations needed to meet security requirements, reliability and productivity of industrial facilities in the fields of materials and mechanics. A part of the Chemistry and Materials of the Energy Efficiency group of this department works on polymer ageing.
Since the 2000s, this team has developed a multi-scale approach on polymer ageing. Some kinetics models of polymer ageing and some progress in multi-scale relations have been realised and implemented in a numerical tool developed internally and called “Virtual Polymer”.
The team involved in TeaM Cables has already been involved in the FP7-ADVANCE project, in the MAI-CAIMAN (Cable AgeIng MANagement) and POLYAGE projects, both dealing with cable ageing.
Role in the project
- Initiator and leader of the TeaM Cables project, the dedicated EDF R&D MMC team has been developing the original multi-scale approach on polymer ageing and associated models since the beginning of the 2000s. In TeaM Cables it will:
- Provide the numerical tool “Virtual Polymer” already developed internally,
- Lead the work package dealing with the modelling,
- Perform sensitivity studies on the models developed,
- Integrate the models developed in the tool “Virtual Polymer”,
- Help to interface “Virtual Polymer” with modules from “COMSY” and so generate the TeaM Cables numerical tool,
- Contribute to dissemination, exploitation and training activities.
PhD, Research Engineer
- PhD in Polymer materials from the University of Savoie (France),
- 9 years of experience in polymer ageing mainly in the framework of the EDF projects dealing with cable ageing (projects Nuclear Polymer Project – NPP and Cable AgeIng MANagement – CAIMAN).
- supervision of several PhD works (A. Shabani, A. De Almeida, W. Bannouf, M. Ben Hassine, C. Kartout, P. Pubellier, M. Mahaud) related to polymer ageing.
- Between 2013 and 2017 he was the project manager of the EDF project CAIMAN (Cable AgeIng MANagement). He is now manager of the Chemistry and Materials for the Energy Efficiency group at the Materials and Mechanics of Components Department of EDF R&D.
- Project director of TeaM Cables.
Mouna BEN HASSINE
PhD, Research Engineer
- PhD in Materials and Mechanics from the “École Nationale Supérieure d’Arts et Métiers” of Paris in 2013. Subject: modelling of thermal and mechanical ageing of an external protection made of EPDM
- Since 2014 : research engineer working on the study and prediction of ageing of polymer materials. She is, since 2017, the project manager of the EDF project CAIMAN (Cable AgeIng MANagement).
- Supervision of several Ph D works (P. Publellier, M. Lacuve, Q. Pelzer) related to polymer ageing. She is working at the Materials and Mechanics of Components Department of EDF R&D and
- In TeaM Cables: in charge of the integration of the kinetics models in the “Virtual Polymer” numerical tool (WP4).
- PhD in Materials and Mechanics at the “École Nationale Supérieure d’Arts et Métiers” of Paris in 2011.
- At EDF since 2014. Currently, he is actively involved in EDF project CAIMAN (Cable Ageing MANagement) and other projects linked to the use of polymer for nuclear and renewable energy.
- Participation to numerous national and international conferences and in the supervision of several internships and one Ph.D work (G. Rapp) related to polymer ageing.
- In TeaM Cables: in charge of the integration of the mechanical, electrical and physical models in the “Virtual Polymer” numerical tool. He will take the lead of WP4.
PhD, Research Engineer
- He did a 2-year post doc on ceramic matrix composite ageing before working for 7 years on polymer ageing for EDF R&D
- Developer of the “Virtual Polymer” tool, a polymer ageing simulation tool.
- Supervision of 3 PhD works on polymer ageing and Non Destructive Exams (NDE) for composites.
- In TeaM Cables: integration of the Virtual Polymer tool as the calculation part of the T&M cables simulation tool (WP6). He will also carry out sensitivity studies on the models developed during the TeaM Cables project and will participate in the production of the TeaM Cables numerical tool and the associated training sessions.
Framatome GmbH is a subsidiary of Framatome S.A.S France and provides products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. Framatome GmbH is present throughout the nuclear fuel production, the nuclear reactor design and operating services and consists of five business units: Fuel, Installed Base (IB), Large Projects, Instrumentation & Control and Engineering and Design Authority (DTI).
The DTICQ unit (DTI technical Centre, Qualification) is part of the Technical Centre within the Engineering and Design Authority. DTICQ is responsible for Strategy, Methods and Approval of equipment qualification and ageing management of electrical and I&C equipment. For this reason DTICQ has knowledge and expertise in the fields of: elaborating strategies to implement ageing management in NPPs, build up and implement tools for supporting ageing management, comprehensive knowledge about equipment (design, functionality and materials) including cables used in NPPs, knowledge on material degradation.
The IBGSL unit (IB Germany Services Lifetime Management) is a department in the Installed Base Section of Framatome GmbH in Germany. The unit provides engineering and expert consultancy services in the field of Ageing and Plant Life Management for mechanical equipment, electrical and I&C components and civil structures, also covering the elaboration of maintenance rules for active components and environmental qualification (EQ) of electrical and I&C equipment.
Role in the project
Framatome will be responsible for:
- Leading the development of the open access TeaM Cables tool with the integration of models
- Issuing the required technical documentation (e.g. specifications, user guide)
- Implementing software modifications and establishing the interfaces (internal and user interface)
- Performing user training related to the tool.
Dr., WP6 leader
INSTITUT DE RADIOPROTECTION ET DE SURETE NUCLEAIRE
IRSN is the French public service expert in nuclear and radiological risks and its activities cover all the related scientific and technical issues. IRSN interacts with all parties concerned by these risks (public authorities, local authorities, companies, research organizations, stakeholders’ associations, etc.) to contribute to public policy relating to nuclear safety. It plays an active role in providing information to the public within its fields of expertise.
IRSN employs around 1,770 people, including many specialists, engineers, researchers, and technicians. It also hosts the activities of doctoral and post-doctoral students. Its annual budget is nearing 300 € millions, out of which more than 40 % are devoted to research activities.
IRSN is involved in the cable ageing area since the 70’s, through several programmes: GEQN, VEILLE, EPSILON, ECCEITAS, CORALO, VAVIT, SCAP and CADAK.
For NPP life-time extension assessment, the cable ageing issue is a key topic for IRSN. One of the major IRSN’s objectives is to deepen the comprehension of degradation mechanisms for low dose rate and low temperature, including synergistic effects. The focus is put on NPP I&C cables which are important for safety. The study of cable ageing during normal operating conditions but also during accidental conditions are both considered. IRSN’s experimental program is based on model formulations and real cable insulations for deepening the knowledge on degradation phenomena (reaction pathway and kinetic) and establishing correlations between microscale evolutions and macroscale mechanical loss of properties.
Role in the project
- French safety expert point of view to ensure results will be useful for assessing future NPP life extension requests.
- Accidental test profile definition and corresponding irradiations of samples.
- Characterisations (FTIR, OIT, swelling tests, and SEM) on irradiated samples.
- Leader of Cable and material characterisations (WP3).
Engineer – Nuclear safety, severe accident specialist - Deputy Head of SEREX (Studies and Experimental Research Department)
PhD - Senior scientist in chemistry and nuclear safety - Head of L2EC (Environment and Chemistry Experimental Research Laboratory)
PhD - Physico-chemical characterisation specialist
COMMISSARIAT A L ENERGIE ATOMIQUE ET AUX ENERGIES ALTERNATIVES
CEA is the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, a French government-funded technological research organisation. Leader in research, development and innovation, CEA is active in four main areas:
- Low-carbon energies
- Defence and security
- Information technologies
- Health technologies
CEA maintains a cross-disciplinary culture built on the synergies between fundamental and technological research. In 2016, the total CEA workforce consisted in 16 000 employees and there were 1 200 PhD students and 250 post-doctoral researchers. The work within the TeaM cables project will primarily be conducted by the teams of the Nuclear Energy Division (CEA/DEN) and Technological Research Division (CEA TECH).
CEA/DEN performs research on current reactors and fuels in support to nuclear industry, and is working on the development and qualification of future reactors, fuels and fuel cycles for Generation IV systems. The Department of Nuclear Materials of CEA/DEN is, among other, recognised for atomic scale understanding of irradiation damage, defects and diffusion in nuclear materials, both metallic and insulators. Numerical simulation and experimental irradiation (JANNuS platform) are used and implemented. This expertise will be used in the TeaM Cables European project to calculate relevant energy barriers, which can be considered as input parameters for the other partners’ simulations (each partner being specialist of one scale). The Department of Physical Chemistry of CEA/DEN is, among other, recognised for its knowledge of degradation mechanisms of polymers submitted to irradiation as a function of the irradiation conditions (emitter, atmosphere, temperature…). The analytical equipment available at CEA/DEN allows the characterisation of the materials before and after ageing, and provides valuable tools to complement non-destructive exams and establish relations between gathered data and polymer structure. This expertise will mainly be used to contribute to the characterisation of materials and the identification of their ageing mechanisms.
CEA TECH, through one of its institutes, LIST (Laboratory of Integrated Systems and Technologies), leads research on software intensive systems. The three main themes with strong economic and societal stakes which are followed by CEA TECH are interactive systems, embedded systems, sensors and signal processing. CEA TECH wire diagnosis experience is considered as a strategic research domain, by developing innovative diagnosis methods, but also developed tools and systems for several application domains (nuclear power plant, aeronautics, space, infrastructures, among others). CEA TECH will use reflectometry as a remote diagnosis tool of cables. This method will be based on cable ageing and fatigue modelling, and applied to non-destructive tests for on-site inspection. This approach will allow the measurement of ageing characteristics remotely on live cables, eliminating destructive tests or local measurements.
CEA participated in the ADVANCE FP7 project.
Role in the project
CEA/DEN will contribute mainly to the characterization of materials and their simulation. By using gas mass spectrometry, CEA/DEN will determine the oxygen consumption in the materials, a key parameter to obtain better understanding of the ageing mechanisms. CEA/DEN will also use ab initio simulation of specific polymer models with or without chain defects in order to establish a fruitful exchange between experiments and simulations. The calculation of relevant energy barriers will be performed in connection with multiscale simulation performed by other partners (EDF).
CEA TECH will use reflectometry as a remote diagnosis tool of cables. This method will be based on cable ageing modelling, and applied to non-destructive tests for on-site inspection. This approach will allow to measure ageing characteristics remotely on wire using the reflection of signals on the cables.
- PhD at CIMAP-GANIL (Centre de recherche sur les Ions, les MAtériaux et la Photonique – Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds) on energy and species transfers between aliphatic and aromatic moieties of polymers subjected to ionizing radiations in 2008.
- Joined CEA/DEN in 2011 to work on polymers radio-oxidation, mainly in the field of nuclear waste management.
- In TeaM Cables:
- realizes experiments using gas mass spectrometry to determine the O2 consumption from radio-oxidized polymeric materials aged in UJV, as a function of the different parameters studied in this European project
- CEA coordinator.
- PhD in Physics from the University of Rome, Tor Vergata (Italy) in 1996.
- 4 years at CECAM (European Center for Atomic and Molecular Calculations) in Lyon (France)
- Joined CEA/DEN in 2000. His research area and expertises are:
- simulation of materials at the atomic scale using Density Functional Theory (in particular on the properties of point defects in insulators)
- vibrational properties, including defects signatures.
- HDR (Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches) from the University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris, France, in 2012 and named CEA Senior Expert in 2015.
Project leader - Researcher
- PhD in Ingineering geology at the Paris National School of Mines in 1991
- Joined CEA/DEN in 1992 to work on the nuclear waste management issue in strong relationship with French national companies dealing with nuclear energy (EDF, ANDRA, AREVA).
- From 2002 to 2011: Head of laboratory on research laboratory dedicated to the use of cementitious and compacted clayed materials for nuclear deep disposal
- From 2011: Project leader 2011 for several basic research programs dedicated to the behaviour of metallic alloys and polymers under irradiation and thermal solicitation in the context of Gen2&3 reactors lifespan extension and the development of new materials for Gen IV sodium fast reactors (ASTRID French demonstrator).
- HDR (Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches) from the University of Toulouse III in 2011.
Project leader - Research engineer
- Engineer from SUPELEC engineer school in Gif sur Yvette, France in 1993 similar to Master of Science degree in electrical and electronic
- 10 years in different industrial company (Airbus, EDF, Renault, Valéo, …) in applied research
- Joined CEA/DRT in 2003: Project Manager and Research Engineer at CEA LIST
- More than 10 patents, for instance in reflectometry to characterize RLCG cable parameter and soft defect detection and localization
- In TeaM Cables:
- brings his knowledge to research and develop new method to characterize local ageing based on reflectometry for all along of the cable under test, non-destructive and in situ inspection.
- Identification end-of-life criteria on reflectometry measurement from knowledge of others work package (WP 3 and WP4 principally)
UJV REZ, a.s.
ÚJV Řež, a. s., is a nuclear service oriented company. It has significant knowledge about tests, analyses and evaluations of materials, NDT qualification, integrity and lifetime assessment of individual components and reactors, equipment qualification etc. ÚJV Řež, a. s. services guarantee the safe and efficient operation of energy sources, in particular nuclear sources, fuel cycle chemistry, and complex services in the management of radioactive and other waste products. These knowledge and means have been used for energy equipment systems by ÚJV Řež, a. s. for more than 60 years.
Role in the project
The Radiation Chemistry and Environmental Qualification Department and its accredited testing laboratory dealing with cable ageing management and qualification has long experience in ageing, accident simulation and properties determination. Therefore, UJV will lead the activities related to Cable provision ageing and accident simulation.
ÚJV will contribute in:
- Accelerated ageing at different conditions (thermal, radiation), accident simulations and function testing (mechanical, electrical, physical tests)
- Long-term post-accident simulations (non-accelerated vs. accelerated) including voltage loading of the cables and periodical measurements and monitoring of electrical properties
- Measurement and testing of functional properties
- Mechanical, physical (Elongation at break, OIT, density) before and after ageing and accident simulation
- Electrical (insulation resistance, voltage withstand tests, RF measurement with VNA, capacitance and loss factor) before, during and after ageing and DBE simulations
- Parameters correlation
UJV has developed SW system for NPP cable life time calculation, based on NPP cable measurement, which includes different ageing models.
Dr., main contact for UJV
RNDr, measurement and results evaluation
Dr., results evaluation, modelling
MSc., F, reflectometry measurement
MSc., electrical measurement
Dr. electrical engineer
Role in the project
In TeaM Cables, ARTTIC will lead the WP7 “Dissemination, exploitation, training and end-user group”. ARTTIC will also have a strong role in WP1 “Project management and Technical Review”, supporting the project coordinator by providing the day to day project management tasks.
Sara Skogsater joined ARTTIC in January 2005 and has worked on the preparation and management of numerous European collaborative research projects in FP6, FP7 and H2020. In the area of EURATOM, she has coordinated the preparation, submission and negotiation of the proposal SOTERIA – Safe long term operation of light water reactors based on improved understanding of radiation effects in nuclear structural materials (H2020-Euratom), which was funded by the EC and started in September 2015.
Sara advises and manages all aspects related to the building and management of a collaborative project, such as the collaborative design, the proposal writing, the budget setup, the operational, financial and contractual follow-up once the project started, the consortium management and the communication and reporting towards the European Commission. Furthermore, Sara has extensive experience in the organisation and implementation of dissemination, exploitation and communication activities of FP6, FP7 and H2020 collaborative research projects. Sara has contributed to the design and implementation of measures to maximise impact in more than 15 collaborative projects of different sizes and target different sectors and target audiences.
Sara holds a Master of Science in International Business from the Gothenburg School of Economics and Commercial Law, Sweden.
NEXANS FRANCE S.A.S
Nexans brings energy to life through an extensive range of cutting-edge products and innovative services. For over 120 years, innovation has been at the core of the Group’s differentiation strategy, enabling Nexans to drive a safer, smarter and more efficient future together with its customers. Today, Nexans empowers its customers in their most complex projects in four main business areas: Building & Territories, High Voltage & Projects, Telecom & Data, and Industry & Solutions.
All required properties of a cable, such as chemical, mechanical, physical or electrical specifications, are closely linked to cable design and production process. Therefore, manufacturing of a high-quality cable requires appropriate tools and equipment as well as highly skilled experts. As a global leader in advanced cabling and connectivity solutions, Nexans has a wide expertise in manufacturing insulation, jacketing and bedding compounds to meet required standards and customer specifications in all business areas.
For many years, Nexans has been a major cable supplier to the Nuclear Power Plants segment around the globe. The Group has contributed to all nuclear programs in France as well as to many major projects in Europe and worldwide. Its know-how in terms of production and testing of compounds and cables is key to TeaM Cables project.
Nexans has contributed to many research programs involving the cable industry, including some of the major European projects, such as:
- POSEIDON, delivered in 2012
- ADVANCE, delivered in 2013.
- EUROTAPES and JOULES, delivered in 2017
Nexans employs more than 26,000 people with industrial footprint in 34 countries and commercial activities worldwide. In 2017, the Group generated 6.4 billion euros in sales.
Role in the project
Three departments within the Nexans Group will be involved in the TeaM project: a cable production unit, a Research Center and the Nuclear Power Plants TEK Center. Their contribution includes:
- Supply of cables and model materials representative of current cables constituents: Nexans provides a selection of cables and model materials that are fully representative of existing electrical parts in the nuclear power plants;
- Contribution to the preparation of test protocols;
- Materials and cable testing according to the testing program and protocol defined by the TeaM Cables partners;
- Enriching discussions around ageing mechanisms and models, including identification of multi-scale relationships;
- Communication, further use and promotion of the project’s results.
Doctor and engineer in material science
TEK Centre Manager
INSTYTUT CHEMII I TECHNIKI JADROWEJ
The INCT (Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology) is Poland’s most advanced institution in the fields of radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiobiology, nuclear chemical engineering and technology, application of nuclear methods in material engineering and radioanalytical methods. Since the early sixties the Institute has been playing a leading role in the development and implementation of nuclear technologies, methods and instruments. The INCT supports the Polish nuclear power program, participating in the EU and national nuclear energy projects and conducting research in the following areas: radiation protection, human resources development, nuclear fuel cycle, materials performance and ageing, and radioactive waste treatment.
The Institute has personnel of over 250 people, including 12 full professors, 8 associate professors and 53 doctors. It was awarded A Category during the last evaluation carried out in 2017 by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.
The Institute is authorised to confer the Ph.D. and habilitation degrees in the field of chemistry and is the only research institution in the country running doctoral studies in nuclear chemistry. In 2016 the Institute was nominated IAEA Collaborating Centre for Radiation Processing and Industrial Dosimetry.
Our competences and experience are based on long-term research on radical processes induced by ionising radiation in polymers, radiation induced cross-linking of polymers and copolymers, degradation and recycling of plastics, comprehensive characteristic of radiation and thermally modified polymeric materials.
The INCT is a leading institute in Poland in the implementation of EU projects related to nuclear energy. Its experience and infrastructure constituted the basis for participation in the FP7-EURATOM project “Ageing Diagnostic and Prognostic of low-voltage I&C cables”.
Role in the Project
Contribution of the INCT in the TeamCables Project is focused on the identification of ageing mechanisms and kinetics of radical decay. Radiation induced processes studied by means of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPRS) have been a priority direction of basic research for last decades. Many years of experience and unique equipment (two EPR spectrometers, X and Q band, equipped with cryostat and high temperature resonator) allow us to comprehensively investigate chemical reactions causing radiation degradation of cables.
Ph.D., D. Sc., Assoc. Prof., Deputy Head of the Centre for Research and Radiation Technology, Head of the Laboratory for Radiation Modified Polymers
Ph.D., Senior researcher
Ph.D., Senior researcher
FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FÖRDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG e. V.
The Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V. (Society for the Advancement of Applied Research) is a German research organisation with 72 institutes focusing on different fields of applied science. The expertise of the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP is spread across the lifecycle of materials, where in each field, leading-edge methods of non-destructive testing are applied. High-frequency eddy current, microwave and terahertz methods are a key competence directly related to this project. Fraunhofer IZFP holds the knowledge and possesses equipment for analysing, testing and evaluating materials with regard to their electric, dielectric and magnetic properties, which are strongly related to ageing phenomena.
Role in the project
In TeaM Cables, Fraunhofer IZFP contributes through terahertz spectroscopy and tomography scans of cable material samples as well as real cables, including analysis, interpretation and correlations of the results to ageing-specific parameters and conditions. The real-world advantage of terahertz methods regarding cable characterisation in the NPP is that they can be applied in a contactless way over many centimetres of stand-off distance. Terahertz equipment is becoming less expensive and fast today, and Fraunhofer is a supplier of terahertz modules, hard- and software. Fraunhofer IZFP will finally propose criteria and protocols for deployment of the terahertz technique for on-site measurements.
Dr.-Ing., head of Materials Characterization department, Project leader
M. Sc., research associate and Ph.D. student in the Materials Characterization department
M. Sc., research associate in the Materials Characterization department
Teknologian tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy
In the area of nuclear safety, VTT’s expertise includes reactor physics and analysis, nuclear power plant behaviour, nuclear waste management, structural integrity, nuclear reactor materials, material-environment interaction and non-destructive evaluation. The special expertise related to this project includes characterisation of polymer material properties and failure analysis, multi-scale materials modelling, including discrete and continuum methods from the atomistic to the micrometre scale, and NDT inspection development for demanding geometries and components especially related to ultrasonic inspection.
Role in the project
- VTT will be conducting elongation-at-break and hardness measurements. Mr. Harri Joki, the responsible person, possesses over 30 years of experience in this kind of material characterisation.
- VTT will participate in the development of new kinetic and multi-scale models for polymer degradation, especially focusing on the microscale structural changes and their impact on the material’s mechanical properties. VTT’s previous experience in modelling polymeric systems includes, inter alia, computational chemistry studies on the thermal degradation behaviour of synthetic and biopolymers, imaging-based micro-scale finite element analyses of the mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced polymer composites, and continuum-level kinetic modelling of the pyrolysis of multi-component polymer formulations and composites.
- VTT is developing condition monitoring technique for NPP cables based on ultrasonic response. Current expertise related to ultrasonic technique includes measurement of precise ultrasound parameters (attenuation, longitudinal, shear and Rayleigh sound velocity) with various probes and scanners.
UNIVERSITE D’AIX MARSEILLE
The Mediterranean Institute of marine and terrestrial Biodiversity and Ecology (IMBE) is a research unit (UMR) including Aix Marseille University / CNRS 7263 / IRD 237 / Avignon University, led by Aix-Marseille University. It studies biological systems on land and in the ocean, with a particular interest in biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. The main goal is to improve conservation as well as the management of natural resources in the light of global change. IMBE’s staff of more than 200 environmental scientists cover key areas of biodiversity, evolution, ecology, paleoecology and the human-environment relation (global ecology). Researchers use and develop approaches in basic and applied biology, including model development.
Biotechnology and chemometrics is a team of IMBE which consists of 16 employees (academic staff) and 6 postgraduate students and research workers implicated in the development of analytical methodologies, dedicated analysers and miniaturised systems to study ageing of complex systems (chemical composition and mechanisms), evolution of environmental organic contaminants, and to make quality control. During the last decade, a lot of progress appeared in the analytic field. The time necessary to obtain analytic data decreases, so for one manufactured product, multiple measurements were done (NIR, MIR spectroscopy, liquid or gas chromatography, sensorial analysis). Chemometrics is a chemical discipline that uses mathematical and statistical tests to extract maximum of useful chemical information by analysing chemical data. This approach is particularly fitted for spectroscopic data. The Research areas of Biotechnology and chemometrics are the following: Chemometric developments; Natural products and Polymers. The Analytical techniques include: Spectroscopy (NIR, MIR, micro FTIR, ATR, Micro Raman, UV, Fluorescence UV); Ageing simulated cells; Separative methods (HPLC, GC).
Role in the project
AMU will build the database which include the measurements done by the partners and provide the related guidelines. AMU will then use the following statistical methods on the database:
- Chemometrics which can provide both quantitative and qualitative information, according to the method used. Three chemometrics treatments will be performed on the database.
- The Principal component analysis (PCA), which is an unsupervised modeling method, is often the first step in exploratory data analysis aiming to find patterns in the data.
- The AComDim method, which is a multi-block analysis to highlight the influential factors (γ-doses, iodine) and their interactions by a simultaneous analysis of all data.
Multivariate methods of curves resolution (SIMPLISMA or MCR-ALS), which allow extracting from these spectres of mixture the pure contributions of the various constituents.
Pr, Specialist in chemometrics analysis
Mrs N. DUPUY, the responsible person for AMU, has over 30 years of experience in chemometrics analysis. She obtained an accreditation to supervise research in 1997 at the University of Sciences and Technologies of Lille : “chemometrics in MIR spectroscopy “. In 1993 she obtained her PhD in Sciences: “Quantitative analysis in MIR fields» from Lille 3 University. She is interested in the following Research Topics:
- Natural product Quality control and authenticity
- Advances methodologies for spectroscopy and imageing PCA, PLS, SIMPLISMA, ACOMDIM
She has a record of 92 publications, 43 oral communications and 117 posters.
Research Engineer - Specialist in chemometric analysis
In 2010 she obtained her PhD in Sciences: “Development and comparison of near infrared spectrometric analysers – Calibration transfer – Application to petroleum products and by-products“ at AMU. The aim of this study was to develop sensors able to analyze fuel quality in an embedded application, in order to optimise engine parameters so that the consumption, the emission of NOx and other pollutants are reduced.
ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE D’ARTS ET METIERS
ENSAM is a higher education engineering school in France. The school has trained 85,000 engineers since its foundation in 1780 by the Duke of La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, and it remains a high-status and selective French “Grande Ecole”. It includes 8 Education and Research Campuses and 3 Institutes across France. ENSAM is a “Public Scientific, Cultural and Professional Institution” (EPSCP) under the authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research. With 15 research laboratories and 1 PhD program, ENSAM develops teaching and research activities in five strategic fields: Future of manufacturing, Mobility, Energy, Health Tech and Construction.
At ENSAM, the shared goals of the research and industry stakeholders bring them together to develop projects and skills to promote the emergence of new ideas in response to rapid technological changes. This approach enables the school to maintain the highest levels of expertise. Furthermore, ENSAM has been involved in several European Projects, as a partner and as a coordinator.
The laboratory on Processes and Engineering in Mechanics and Materials (PIMM) of ENSAM will be involved in TeaM Cables. It is internationally recognised in the field of ageing of polymer and organic matrix composites, in particular for its research activities on the kinetic analysis and modelling of ageing processes and the non-empirical prediction of the long-term behaviour and embrittlement of these materials in their use conditions. Its extensive experimental park, composed of very varied and complementary facilities, allows the achievement of ageing experiments in selected and well controlled environmental conditions (temperature, oxygen, humidity, etc.) and the monitoring of the ageing consequences at different structural scales, typically from the molecular (monomer unit) to macroscopic scale (use properties), by passing by the macromolecular (polymer chain) and morphological scales (crystalline lamellae). This laboratory focuses on the changes over time in relevant structural variables at these different scales in order to validate the kinetic model that it develops. It also pays a peculiar attention to the relationships between the material microstructure and use properties (mostly mechanical and dielectric properties), but also to end-of-life criteria of structural type. The corresponding multiscale and multidisciplinary approach takes into account the different multi-physical couplings existing between the polymer chemistry, physics and mechanics, for instance the reaction-diffusion coupling for describing the spatial inhomogeneity of the chemical ageing events throughout the sample thickness, or the reaction-diffusion-mechanics coupling for predicting the effect of the mechanical stress/deformation on the ageing kinetics.
Role in the project
The PIMM laboratory will be in charge of the physico-chemical characterisation of electrical cables after their radiochemical and thermal ageing, by a series of complementary destructive and non-destructive methods. These experiments will aim at determining the kinetics of physical loss and chemical consumption of antioxidants (OIT measurement and UV spectrometry), the formation and accumulation of oxidation products (DSC and FTIR spectrometry in transmission and ATR modes), and the relative predominance of chain scissions and crosslinking (swelling at equilibrium in an adequate solvent, micro-indentation). Complementary microscopic examinations (optical microscopy, SEM and AFM) will also be done for determining the thickness of the superficial oxidised layer and a possible modification of the degradation kinetics in the immediate vicinity of the mineral fillers.
All these experimental data collected at distinct structural scales will be used to build the kinetic model, identify its main parameters and check its validity.
Given the large experience and expertise of the PIMM laboratory in this field (see below), it is expected that the main issues and thus, the main innovations in this project will concern the establishment of new structure/property relationships, in particular between the ageing state of the electrical cables and their use properties.
The PIMM laboratory will also be involved in the development of new diagnostic techniques of the ageing of electrical cables and the research of end-of-life criteria.
Professor, physico-chemist, in charge of the project supervision and the kinetic analysis and modeling of the electrical cable ageing
Assistant professor, physico-chemist, in charge of the identification of physico-chemical ageing mechanisms and research of end-of-life criteria
Research engineer, materials science and microscopy, in charge of microscopic examination and analysis
Research engineer, materials science and mechanics, in charge of mechanical characterisation and analysis
Assistant engineer, chemistry, in charge of physico-chemical characterisation and analysis